Symptoms and management tips

FODMAP is an acronym that stands for Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Monosaccharides and Polyols

These short-chain carbohydrates and fibres include excess fructose, lactose, sugar alcohols, fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, explains Penny Lara.


They enter the bowel, increase the osmotic pressure and are fermented by bacteria, leading to symptoms of excessive gas production, abdominal distension, discomfort and pain.

FODMAPs include high fructose foods such as apples, honey, dried fruits and fruit juices; lactose, present in milk products; sugar alcohols (polyol), present in sugar-free gums and mints, apples, pears and apricots; fructans, present in wheat and rye, the onion family and artichokes; and galacto-oligosaccarides, present in legumes. 

Management tips

* Reducing galacto-oligosaccharides can be challenging in a vegan or vegetarian diet as they are an important protein source, therefore moderation rather than restriction is advised, and individual tolerance needs to be established. Alternative protein sources can also be discussed

* Substitute wheat and rye for wholemeal spelt, oats, quinoa and brown rice.

Find out more about Fructose Malabsorption or share your stories on our Facebook page.


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